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Сомали - Государство

Сомали - Государство



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Название страны:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Somalia
local long form: Jamhuuriyada Demuqraadiga Soomaaliyeed
local short form: Soomaaliya
former: Somali Republic; Somali Democratic Republic

Статус зависимости:


Государственное устройство, форма правления:
no permanent national government; transitional, parliamentary federal government

Административно-территориальное деление:
18 regions (plural - NA, singular - gobolka); Awdal, Bakool, Banaadir, Bari, Bay, Galguduud, Gedo, Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe, Jubbada Hoose, Mudug, Nugaal, Sanaag, Shabeellaha Dhexe, Shabeellaha Hoose, Sool, Togdheer, Woqooyi Galbeed

Зависимые регионы:


Независимость:
1 July 1960 (from a merger of British Somaliland, which became independent from the UK on 26 June 1960, and Italian Somaliland, which became independent from the Italian-administered UN trusteeship on 1 July 1960, to form the Somali Republic)

Национальные праздники:
Foundation of the Somali Republic, 1 July (1960); note - 26 June (1960) in Somaliland

Конституция:
25 August 1979, presidential approval 23 September 1979
note: the formation of transitional governing institutions, known as the Transitional Federal Government, is currently ongoing

Правовая система:
no national system; Islamic and secular courts based on Somali customary law (xeer) are present in some localities; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Избирательное право:
18 years of age; universal

Исполнительная власть:
chief of state: Transitional Federal President Abdullahi YUSUF Ahmed (since 14 October 2004); note - a transitional governing entity with a five-year mandate, known as the Transitional Federal Institutions (TFIs), was established in October 2004; the TFI relocated to Somalia in June 2004, but its members remain divided over clan and regional interests and the government continues to struggle to establish effective governance in the country
head of government: Prime Minister Ali Mohamed GEDI (since 24 December 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister and approved by the Transitional Federal Assembly
election results: Abdullahi YUSUF Ahmed, the former leader of the semi-autonomous Puntland region of Somalia, was elected president by the Transitional Federal Assembly

Законодательная власть:
unicameral National Assembly
note: fledgling parliament; a 275-member Transitional Federal Assembly; the new parliament consists of 61 seats assigned to each of four large clan groups (Darod, Digil-Mirifle, Dir, and Hawiye) with the remaining 31 seats divided between minority clans

Судебная власть:
following the breakdown of the central government, most regions have reverted to local forms of conflict resolution, either secular, traditional Somali customary law, or Shari'a (Islamic) law with a provision for appeal of all sentences

Политические партии и их лидеры:
none

Политическое влияние групп и лидеров:
numerous clan and sub-clan factions are currently vying for power; Supreme Council of Islamic Courts (SCIC)

Участие в международных организациях:
ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, CAEU, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ITU, LAS, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

although an interim government was created in 2004, other regional and local governing bodies continue to exist and control various cities and regions of the country, including the self-declared Republic of Somaliland in northwestern Somalia, the semi-autonomous State of Puntland in northeastern Somalia, and traditional clan and faction strongholds

По материалам CIA World Fact Book   


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